Simple ways to read and interpret urinalysis result chart

 How to interpret urinalysis stripe test at home

Urinalysis test strip usually helps in detection of different urine parameters that can assist you checks appearance, concentration and content of urine.Its also used to detect a wide range of medical disorders, such as urinary tract infections (UTI’s), kidney disease and diabetes.Urinalysis reagent strip has test pads with chemical in it that helps detect any abnormalities in your urine by change of pads color. Urinalysis result chart is used to read the result of the urinalysis test by matching the color on the strip pads with the colors on the result chart .

Leucocyte test

Wait 120 seconds to read the result This test reveals the presence of granulocyte esterases. Expected normal urine specimens generally yield negative result for Leukocytes. A positive result is indicted by a beige-pink to purple color. The detection Leukocytes in the urine suggests a possible Urinary Tract Infection (UTI).This maybe somewhere in the urinary tract such as the bladder, or the urethra. Kidney stones, pelvic area tumor, or a blockage in the urinary tract can also cause more leukocytes to appear. Trace result maybe of questionable clinical significance. Small result is indicative clinical significance. Moderate and large is indicative of a positive result.

Nitrite test

Wait 60 Seconds to read the result  This test depends upon the conversion of nitrate to nitrite by the action of Gram negative bacteria in urine. Expected normal urine result is usually negative for nitrite test. A positive result causes production of pink color on the reagent stripe. This is suggestive of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) an infections caused by nitrate-reducing bacteria.  Leukocytes and Nitrite this two parameters are commonly used to screen for possible urinary truck system infection.

Urobilinogen

Wait 60 Seconds to read the result Urobilinogen is one of the major compound produced in heme synthesis and is a normal substance in the urine. Urobilinogen is the breakdown product of bilirubin and is formed from the reduction of bilirubin. It is usually yellowish in color and it is produced by the liver in the process of breakdown of red blood cells and finally eliminated from the body in the urine as a pee. Expected range for normal urine in this test is 0.2-1.0mg/dl. The presence of elevated urobilinogen suggests a possible abnormalities of liver functions. Positive test results can indicate liver diseases such as cirrhosis, viral hepatitis, liver damage due to drugs or toxic substances, and/or conditions associated with increased RBC destruction (hemolytic anemia).

Protein

Wait 60 Seconds to read the result presence of protein in the urine is called proteinuria. This test is based on a phenomena known as the “protein error “of the pH indicator whereby an indicator which is highly buffered will change color in the presence of protein anion as the indicator release hydrogen ions to the protein. Development of any green color is indicative of presence of protein in the urine. Expected result is Negative for Protein and the concentration should be in range of 1-14mg/dL for normal urine excretion of protein. Negative result is indicated with yellow to yellow green color. Positive result is indicated by green to green blue color. High level of protein in urine more than 14mg/dl is indicative of   kidneys that they are not working properly, or that there is high levels of certain proteins present in the bloodstream. Strenuous exercise also causes elevation of protein in the urine. Low levels of protein in urine are normal. Small increases in protein in urine usually are not a cause for concern, but larger amounts may indicate a kidney problem. Proteinuria (Albuminuria) is often associated with early renal disease, making the urinary protein test an important part of any physical examination.

pH

Wait 60 Seconds to read the result– The pH level indicates the amount of acidity or alkalinity in urine. Urinalysis uses multi-test reagent strips containing pH indicators that provide a range of sensitivity to pH from 5.0 to 8.5. The pH level is usually indicated by a color which can change from orange to yellow (acid) to green to blue (alkaline). The expected range should be between pH of 4.5-7.5 and the generally accepted normal pH of urine is about 5.5 to 6.5.Abnormal pH levels may indicate a kidney or urinary tract disorder. Some of the substances dissolved in your urine can form crystals when the urine is acidic and others can form crystals when the urine is basic. This leads to development of kidney stone. Low pH (acidic): Foods such as acidic fruits (cranberries) can lower the pH, as can high a high protein diet. As urine generally reflects the blood pH, metabolic or respiratory acidosis can make it more acidic. Other causes of acidic urine include diabetes, diarrhea and starvation. High pH (alkaline): Low carb or vegetarian diet May be associated with renal calculi. Respiratory or metabolic alkalosis Urinary tract infection

Blood

Wait 60 Seconds to read the result  The test is based on the peroxidative action of hemoglobin or myoglobin which catalyzes the oxidation of the color indicator on the reagent stripe by an organic hydroperoxide compound to give a blue-green dye which on the yellow test paper causes a color change to green. Expected result should be Negative indicated by yellow color .Presence of blood in the urine is called hematuria. Blood in urine is classified as microscopic meaning that the blood is not visible with the naked eye or macroscopic meaning blood present in urine can be detected visually. A number of things can cause hematuria including Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), Kidney infection, medication, strenuous exercise, renal calculi. It may also be present with damaged glomerulus. Acute tubular necrosis. Traumatic catheterization. Contamination from the vagina during menstruation.

Specific gravity

Wait 45 Seconds to read the result.Urine specific gravity generally correlates with the urine osmolality. Specific gravity (SG) of urine signifies the concentration of dissolved solutes and reflects the effectiveness of the renal tubules to concentrate it (when the body needs to conserve fluid). If there were no solutes present the urines SG would be 1.000, the same as pure water. The normal ranges varies from 1.003 to 1.030. Anything less than 1.010 is suggestive of relative hydration, and values greater than 1.020 indicate relative dehydration. Specific Gravity evaluates the body’s water balance (hydration) and urine concentration and helps evaluate kidney functions and possible kidney diseases.Decreased SG may be due to: Excessive fluid intake (oral or IV fluids) .Renal failure Acute glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, acute tubular necrosis Diabetes insipidus .Increased SG may be due to: Dehydration due to poor fluid intake, vomiting or diarrhea Heart failure Liver failure Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion It also reflects a high solute concentration which may be from glucose (diabetes or IV glucose) or protein

Ketone

Wait 40 Seconds to read the result  : Ketones is a compound made up of acetoacetic acid, ß-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetone. Ketone occur in the urine when increased fat metabolism takes place in the organism owing to an insufficient supply of energy in the form of carbohydrates. Normally, body burns glucose (sugar) for energy. If cells don’t get enough glucose, body will therefore burns fat for energy instead and thus ketone is produce in the urine and blood. This test is based on ketone reacting on nitroprusside and acetoacetic acid to produce a color change ranging from light pink for negative result to dark pink or purple color for positive result. Expected result should be negative for Ketone anything below 0.5 mmol/L (5 mg/dL) is acceptable and anything above it is of clinical significant. It is not normal to find ketones in the urine. In healthy individuals, ketones are formed in the liver and are completely metabolized so that only negligible amounts appear in the urine. Presence of ketones may indicate: diabetes, alcoholism, eclampsia, a state of starvation and pregnancy

Bilirubin

Wait 30 Seconds to read the result Bilirubin is a highly pigmented compound which is produced as a by-product during the degradation of RBC in the liver and normally excreted in the bile. Once in the intestine it is excreted in the faces (as stercobilin) or by the kidneys (as urobilinogen). The reagent-strip method for determining bilirubin involves a diazotization reaction. Expected result should be Negative for bilirubin. Varying bilirubin level will produce pinkish-tan color proportion to its concentration in urine. Any amount detected is of clinical significance and may indicate liver disease such as hepatitis, a blockage in the structures that carry bile from your liver, or a problem with your general liver function.

Glucose

Wait 30 Seconds to read the result .Expected result: Negative.The determination of glucose in urine has a high diagnostic value for early detection of disorders such as diabetes mellitus. Any detection of sugar on this test usually calls for follow-up testing for diabetes. Glucose is not normally present in the urine. Once the level of glucose in the blood reaches a renal threshold the kidneys begin to excrete it into the urine in an attempt to decrease the blood concentration. So high blood concentrations lead to glycosuria (presence of glucose in the urine), as does conditions that may reduce this renal threshold. The extra sugar in the bloodstream is usually only removed via the kidneys and detectable in urine at blood sugar concentrations of 10 mmol/L (180 mg/dL) and above .This test is based on enzymatic reaction that occur between glucose oxidase peroxidase and chromogen. The extent at which chromogen is oxidize determines the color which is produced ranging from green to brown.

Medical Laboratory Scientist

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